List of Web Sites

This is a list of unsorted links to various Euclid-related pages and some further commentary. I've singled out the first four links which I consider to be four of the most important extant manuscripts. 

These are the 888 AD Theon manuscript, the Pre-Theon Vatican 190 manuscript, and the Greek to Latin translation from Sicily (translation made in the 12th but this copy is 13/14th century)


I've also added some links and discussion on Adelard I manuscript as well as one link to an early Arabic manuscript.  

As far as I can tell there is surprisingly, no complete early Adelard I manuscript available online in the UK. The only fully digitized copies are in Belgium and the Vatican and possibly elsewhere that I haven't checked. Given that Adelard is one of most famous early British scholars it is quite surprising that no online copy is available in the UK itself.  The British Library may have something, such as the MS Burney 275, but I've found the British Library website be a very unreliable to access. MS 275 is a somewhat mixed up manuscript. It contains part of Adelard II, III and I and only fragments of each. For example it only contains 6 folios of Adelard I (302-308)


Important Early Manuscripts

Bodleian D'Orville 888 AD Copy of Euclid  (Greek)

The Vatican 190 PEYRARD Manuscript (Greek)

The 7373 Greek to Latin Edition by Sicilian Annonymous Translator (Latin)


Arabic Manuscripts

I couldn't find any early online Arabic editions of Euclid except for this one which is a little later by al-Tusi. I wasn't able to determine what is was based on.

Euclid.; Ṭūsī, Naṣīr al-Dīn Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad, 1201-1274 translator; This copy dated 1594


Adelard I Manuscripts - Translation from Arabic to Latin

There are at least four UK-based copies in Glasgow, Oxford and the British Library. The first three are not fully digitized (just a handful of pages) and the fourth isn't digitized at all. 

Glasgow, Latin, Sp Coll MS Gen. 1115,  dated 4 December 1480

 Oxford, Trinity College MS. 47, Latin, this is the designed 'O' manuscript by Busard and perhaps the oldest (Folkerts). Probably 13th/14 century.

Further information on MS 47 can be found here, but the information doesn't look correct as it suggests this copy is "now tentatively attributed to Robert of Ketton". Robert of Ketton is also more commonly called Robert of Chester who is considered to have written the Adelard II manuscripts not Adelard I manuscripts since most if not all other literature states the Adelard I manuscripts are based on Adelard's own personal translation. It also claims there are only 5 manuscripts in existence but Menso Folkerts lists 7, although some of these are very incomplete.  The Folkerts list doesn't include the Glasgow manuscript possibly because it's too late (1480)

Bodleian Oxford, MS. Arch. Selden. B. 13, 13th century, late 

D-Orville 70,  located at Oxford (Latin, this is the designated 'D' manuscript by Busard), 14th century

Two fully digitized copies include one in the Vatican and another at Bruges in Belgium:

Vatican  Reg Lat. 1137, fully digitized (listed by Folkerts)

Bruges MS 529 designated B by Busard, fully digitized (listed by Folkerts)

Two things I came across that appears distinctive about Adelard I books is in Book III on circles:

a) The first is that Proposition 12 is missing from copies of Adelard I. This is a small proposition that proves that when two circles touch, their centers pass through the point of contact. 

b) The second difference is Adelard I merges proposition 35 and 36 which he numbers 34. 

As a result of these differences, Adelard I has 35 propositions in Book II while Heath's Euclid has  37. There has been a suggestion that Preposition 12 was inserted by Heron. This comes from a remark  one can find in Gerard Cremona's translation of the commentary of Al-Nayrizi. Al-Nyrizi says in what we would call Proposition 12 but he calls "The Eleventh Figure of the Third Treatise"  because he merges 11 and 12 together, that "Heron said: Lo, in this figure the mathematician fixed the two circles...". Maybe Adelard didn't add the proposition to his translation because he thought it didn't belong and Al-Nyrizi didn't pull it out as a separate preposition.  John Casey in his 1885 edition of Euclid (p120) actually says that Prop XI and XII can be combined into one general porosition. 

Other links:

Euclid of Alexandria:    https://mathshistory.st-andrews.ac.uk/Biographies/Euclid/

 David Joyce's Euclid Page:      https://mathcs.clarku.edu/~djoyce/elements/toc.html

Reading Euclid in Greek: https://mysite.du.edu /~etuttle/classics/nugreek/contents.htm

Life of Euclid: https://peakd.com/euclid/@harlotscurse/the-elements-of-euclid

Bodleian D'Orville Translated to English:   https://www.claymath.org/library/historical/euclid/

Wikipedia Page on Euclid's Elements: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Euclid%27s_Elements

List of Vatican Manuscripts: https://macrotypography.blogspot.com/2016/02/vatican-euclid-online.html

List of Manuscripts at Boston University Library:  https://library.brown.edu/exhibits/archive/math/textfr.html

Oliver Byrne's Euclid on the Web: https://www.c82.net/euclid/

Richard Fitzpatrick Translation of Heiberg's Greek Edition:  https://www.cs.umb.edu/~eb/370/euclid/EuclidBook1.pdf

Greek Mathematicians Timeline: https://mathigon.org/timeline

Heath's Euclid on the Web: https://:www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.01.0086%3Abook%3D1%3Atype%3DDef%3Anumber%3D1   

Euclid's Elements in the Middle Ages:   https://personal.math.ubc.ca/~cass/Euclid/folkerts/folkerts.html

Math Manuscripts at the Vatican: https://www.loc.gov/exhibits/vatican/math.html

Some Images from Manuscripts: https://jenikirbyhistory.getarchive.net/amp/topics/elements+of+euclid

Some Commentary on  Vat. gr. 190, called P:   https://www.  historyofinformation.com/detail.php?id=2363

Kronecker Wallis Kickstarter Project: https://www.orvill.com/projects/1174653512/euclids-elements-completing-oliver-byrnes-work

Stephen Wolfram's Analysis: https://writings.stephenwolfram.com/2020/09/the-empirical-metamathematics-of-euclid-and-beyond/

Biography of Euclid:  https://www.andrews.edu/~calkins/math/webtexts/bioeucli.htm

Erhard Ratdolt:  https://www.loc.gov/item/2021667076/

Proposition 2: https://gogeometry.com/geometry/euclid_elements_book_i_2_straight_line_equal.htm

Gothic Architecture and Euclid: https://www.sbebuilders.com/tools/geometry/treatise/Applied-Geometry.html

Images of Diagrams: https://www.davidboeno.org/GROEUVRE/I1p/orville.html

Long Commentary of Medieval Manuscripts: https://www2.hf.uio.no/polyglotta/index.php?page=volume&vid=67

Oldest extant diagrams from Euclid:    https://personal.math.ubc.ca/~cass/Euclid/papyrus/papyrus.html

Finding Euclid on Pot Shards: https://www.laphamsquarterly.org/roundtable/evidence-elements

Sir Charles Thomas-Stanford Collection: https://personal.math.ubc.ca/~cass/Euclid/ts/ts.html

List of links to manuscripts: https://www.mathdiagrams.org/latin-euclid